To help you learn about the southern night sky, Sydney Observatory provides an audio guide/podcast, transcript of that audio, and a sky map or chart each month. This month’s guide is presented by Melissa Hulbert, Sydney Observatory’s Astronomy Education Officer.
Mel takes us on a tour of the stars and constellations prominent in the February sky, including associated tales from ancient mythology. Constellations to look for this month include Orion (whose shoulder or armpit is the star, Betelgeuse), Taurus and Canis Major (featuring the brightest star in the night sky, Sirius).
We can also see the second brightest star in the night sky this month – Canopus, part of the constellation of Carina (the keel) – formerly part of the constellation of Argo Narvis, associated with the myth of Jason and the Argonauts
For all this and also when we can see Jupiter, Saturn, Mars, Venus and Mercury this month, listen to the February 2014 night sky guide audio, or read the transcript below.
SEE THE SKY CHART
We provide an embedded sky map (below – please be patient as it can take a little while for it to load) and a February 2014 night sky chart (PDF) which shows the stars, constellations and planets visible in the night sky from anywhere in Australia. To view PDF star charts you will need to download and install Adobe Acrobat Reader if it’s not on your computer already.
BUY THE BOOK
Our annual book, ‘The 2014 Australasian sky guide’ by Dr Nick Lomb has more information and star maps for months from December 2013 until December 2014 inclusive, plus information about the Sun, twilight, the Moon and tides, and a host of other fascinating astronomical information. You can purchase it ($16.95) at Sydney Observatory and Powerhouse Museum shops or other good bookshops, or online through Powerhouse Publishing (additional packing/postage costs apply).
READ THE TRANSCRIPT (after the jump)
Transcript of the February 2014 monthly sky guide audio
Hello and welcome to the night sky for February. My name is Melissa Hulbert and I’m an Astronomy Educator at Sydney Observatory.
Before we start our night sky tour, make sure you download the February sky map from our website at www.sydneyobservatory.com.au. Click the ‘Astronomy’ tab, and go to the ‘Monthly sky guides’ section.
Armed with your sky map and a small torch with some red cellophane covering it, find a nice dark place away from the glare of the street lights and make sure you know your cardinal directions – that’s north, south, east and west. Remember that the Sun rises in the east, moves through the northern sky during the day and sets in the west; or a small compass will also point you in the right direction. Pick a comfortable spot either on a rug or a deck chair that you can lay back in. Wait about 5-10 minutes and allow your eyes to adapt to the darkness.
Now let’s turn towards the north. High in the northern sky is the familiar constellation of Orion, the Hunter. In Greek mythology, Orion was a hunter of great skill and boasted that he could kill all living animals. Gaea the Earth goddess was alarmed by his statement and, fearing for all the animals on Earth, she sent a scorpion to kill him. Orion was stung on the shoulder but was later revived and placed in the stars along with the scorpion. This entire myth is played out in the stars each year. As Scorpius the scorpion rises in the east, Orion sets in the west defeated. When Scorpius sets in the west the healer Ophiuchus crushes the scorpion into the Earth and revives Orion so he can rise in the east again. Orion appears in many cultures, even the ancient Egyptians saw Orion as Osiris, god of the underworld and of regeneration.
If you’re having difficulty picking out the hunter then look for ‘The Saucepan’. This is a familiar group of stars for those of us in the Southern Hemisphere and is Orion’s belt and sword. Orion is upside down for us. Below ‘The Saucepan’ you should see the red supergiant star, Betelgeuse. Remember the scorpion’s sting? Betelgeuse has a distinct reddish tinge to our eye and is the shoulder or armpit of Orion. Above ‘The Saucepan’ and diagonally opposite Betelgeuse is a brilliant white star – Rigel, one of Orion’s knees. Rigel is a blue-white supergiant star which is about 60,000 times more luminous than our own Sun. Rigel also has a small companion star which is best seen through a telescope though if seeing conditions are not the best, small telescopes will struggle to see the companion through the glare of Rigel.
Let’s return to the belt of Orion and follow its line to the west where we come to the back of a sideways ‘V’. This ‘V’ is the head of Taurus the bull who appears to be charging at Orion.
Taurus, like Orion, is also steeped in Greek mythology and represents the bull Zeus changed into to carry Princess Europa off to Crete.
Back to the ‘V’ which is part of a large open star cluster visible in binoculars called the Hyades. One of Taurus’ eyes is an orange giant star called Aldebaran which means ‘the follower’ and it too has a distinct orange tinge when viewed with the unaided eye. It follows the Pleiades, a wonderful open star cluster that can be seen with your eyes to the north-west of the ’V’. The Pleiades are known as the ‘Seven Sisters’ as seven stars are readily seen with your eyes, but away from city lights, up to 13 can be seen with the unaided eye. The whole cluster contains about 100 stars and binoculars are the best way to view this marvellous object.
Make your way back to Orion’s belt and this time, follow the line of the belt in the opposite direction, towards the east. Here we come straight to a very bright white star. This star is called Sirius and is the brightest star in either southern or northern Hemisphere. It is bright because it is close to us – only 8.7 light years away or about 87 million million kilometres from us (and that’s considered close).
Sirius features strongly in mythology. To the Greeks it was the canine companion of Orion, but could also be Hermes, the guide to the dead. To the ancient Egyptians, Sirius originally represented Anubis who invented embalming and funeral rites, and guided you through the underworld to your judgement and helped weigh your heart to determine your fate in the afterlife. Later Sirius represented the goddess Isis and the Egyptians initially based their calendar on Sirius’ yearly motion around the sky.
Sirius is the brightest star in the constellation of Canis Major or the Great Dog and perhaps is best known to our younger listeners as a character in the ‘Harry Potter’ books who is able to change into a large dog.
Let’s do an about-face and turn to look at the southern sky. High in the south is a bright star, in fact the 2nd brightest in our sky – Canopus. Canopus is a white supergiant star and is 313 light years away. Canopus was the helmsman of the Greek King Menelaus and rather appropriately is now used by spacecraft as a navigational guide.
Canopus is the brightest star in the constellation Carina, which represents the keel of a boat. Originally it was part of the large constellation Argo Narvis which was the Ship of the Argonauts, which Jason and the Argonauts used in their quest for the Golden Fleece. So, nearby you will see Vela the sails and Puppis the poop. In 1793 Argo Narvis was divided into the three constellations we see today.
If you are away from city lights you might make out two cloud-like shapes in the southern sky. A large one almost straight overhead in the southern sky and a smaller one a little lower and to the west. These are the clouds of Magellan, but they are not clouds. They are companion galaxies to our own Milky Way. They are gravitationally attached to our galaxy and we now know there is physical interaction between these galaxies and our own.
So what else can we look forward to seeing in the sky in February 2014?
Rising in the north-east just before sunset is Jupiter. It is easy to find as it is the brightest object in that area of the sky as twilight ends. It is in the constellation Gemini and moves between the twin stars Castor and Pollux. Binoculars will show you the four largest moons known as the Galilean satellites and small aperture telescopes will show one or two of the Jovian clouds belts. On the 11th a 12-day-old waxing gibbous Moon appears slightly to the north and above the Jovian giant.
In the north-east and rising in the late evening (around midnight/11:30pm Eastern Daylight Savings Time (EDST)) in the constellation Libra is the wonderful ringed-planet, Saturn. Saturn’s impressive ring system can be seen in even small aperture telescopes and depending on the telescope you are using you may even catch a glimpse of a few of Saturn’s moons including the second largest in our solar system, Titan. On the 21st, a 21- day-old waning gibbous Moon appears slightly to the east and above Saturn.
Mars is also in the late evening sky rising about 11pm EDST at the start of the month and by months end rising about 9:45pm EDST. Throughout the month it remains close to the brightest star in the constellation Virgo, Spica. The planet is approaching opposition in April (opposition is when a celestial body is opposite the Sun in the sky) and observers will notice the planet brightening by the end of the month. On the 19th, a 19-day-old waning gibbous Moon will be slightly to the north and above the red planet (but below Spica).
February has Venus on offer for all you early-birds! It will be at its brightest or greatest illuminated extent on the 15th. This occurs when the visible area of the planet’s daytime side (the part we see from Earth) covers the greatest area of our sky. Venus will appear as a crescent that’s about 25% illuminated and will peak at a magnitude of -4.9 (as bright as it can get). This provides a good opportunity to observe something a little different. Venus is the 3rd brightest object in our sky after the Sun and Moon and can cast shadows on a Moonless night. This is best observed at the time of greatest illuminated extent, in a dark location away from city lights. Let us know if you succeed in observing this via our blog or Facebook page. On the 26th the 25-day-old waning crescent Moon is above and slightly east of Venus.
Late in the month Mercury returns to the morning skies. The easiest time to find the planet will be on the 28th when a very thin crescent Moon (the Moon is 38 hours away from New Moon and is only 3% illuminated) is slightly below and to the east of Mercury. You may need binoculars to see this.
Unfortunately this month I don’t have a wildcard for you but don’t despair! Keep your eyes upwards towards the stars as you never know what the sky might show you. Whether gazing at the Moon and planets or into the vast depths of space, one quote from Albert Einstein always comes to mind: “The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious. It is the source of all true art and science.”
As you gaze up into the sky this February, enjoy the mysterious and see you next month under the stars!
If you have enjoyed this podcast and think you might want to regularly check out what’s in the night sky, why not purchase a copy of Sydney Observatory’s book the ‘Australasian Sky Guide’ for 2014. It not only contains detailed monthly sky guides, but is jam-packed with astronomical information including rise and set times for the Sun, Moon and planets, tides and a detailed look at our Solar System and upcoming astronomical events. Only $16.95 from Sydney Observatory and Powerhouse Museum shops or you can purchase it online (additional costs apply).
You can also subscribe for free to our Sydney Observatory monthly sky guide podcasts through iTunes.
This has been Melissa Hulbert from Sydney Observatory with the February sky guide podcast.